Boren Scholarships (undergraduate): Provides scholarships for U.S. undergraduates "to study less commonly taught languages in world regions critical to U.S. interests but underrepresented in study abroad." Programs include full-year, one-semester, and summer-immersion. Requirements: American citizen.
Boren Fellowships (graduate): Provides support for graduate students who want to include an international component to their master's or doctoral programs. "Boren Fellowships provide support for overseas study, domestic study, or a combination of both." Awards range from one semester to two years, including special opportunities for Asian studies. Requirements: American citizen, enrolled in or applying for graduate student at U.S. universities.
Gilman: Provides aid for financially needy students to pursue study abroad in non-traditional areas. Note that emphasis is placed on the development of "critical need" languages, such as Arabic, Chinese, Turkic, Persian, Indic, Korea, and Russian.
Attributes: U.S. citizen; demonstrable financial need.
U.S. Department of State Critical Language Scholarships for Intensive Summer Institutes:
Opportunities for undergraduates and graduating seniors to develop languages critical to develop U.S. interests: Arabic, Bangla/Bengali, hindi, Punjabi, Turkish, Urdu, Chinese, Persian, Russian, and Azerbaijani.
Attributes: U.S. citizen, varying prerequisites.
Awards in each region provide 'immersive work experiences" by connecting "service-minded graduates and partner organization."
Princeton in Africa (PIAf): http://www.princetoninafrica.org (about 50/year)
Princeton in Asia (PIA): https://piaweb.princeton.edu/ (about 150/year)
Princeton in Latin America (PiLA): https://pila-princeton.org/ (about 50/year)
Kathryn Davis Fellows for Peace at Middlebury College: Kathryn Davis Fellows for Peace scholarships for summer language study at Middlebury College: Mandarin, French, German, Hebrew, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Arabic, Italian and Korean