The Modern era encompasses artistic developments from the 19th century to the present. Early on, France assumed a dominant role with major works in the art historical periods of Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Realism, Impressionism, and Post-Impressionism.
Significant art of the 20th century is far wider in its context, including work in England, Italy, Germany, Austria, and the United States characterized as Expressionism and Abstraction. Modern art brings us the rise of the individual artist, personal expression, and the role of the dealer. New materials such as plastics and commercial products, especially in architecture, are now accepted. Postmodernism now brings very new expressions, often significant critiques of society.